Skip to main content

Full text of "A new method of making common-place-books;"

See other formats

Common - Place - Books ; 

By the late Learned Mr. John Loc^ 
Author ox tKe £ SSA Y concerning 
Humane Vnderfanding. 

^ranflateB from tfje jfrcntf). 


Is added Something from Monfieur Lc 

Cierc, relating to the fame SubjeS. 

ATREATISE neceffary for all Gentle- 
men, efpecially Students of Viyinityfbyfick, 
and Law. 

There are alfo added Two Letters, containing a 
moft Ufeful Method for inftrufting Perlbns that 
are Deaf and Dumb, or that Labour under any 
Impediments of Speech, to fpeak diflinftiy ; writ 
by the Jate Learned Dr. John WallU, Geometry 
Proefcff. Oxon, and F. R.S. 

L N P Q H: 

Pririted-fefr J. Greenwood, Bookfeller, -at the 

End oiCornbil. next Stocks-Market, 1 706. 

T O 

Mr. Edward Northey , 
o F 


S I R, 

I Here Prefent you with a Method 
of making Common-Vlacts , for 
which I need make no Apology, when 
I ftiall have told you that it was writ 
by that Great Mafter of Reafon and 
Method, the late Learned Mr* Lock. 

I know very well that nothing of 
that Great Man's can fail of meeting 
with a kind Reception from you, who 
have fo often expreffed the Pleafure 
and Advantage you receive from his 
Writings 5 and I make no doubt but 
this Method will have its Share in your 
Efteem, by being obferved in the Fu- 
ture Courfe of your Studies. 

A 2 I 

Epifile Dedicatory. 

I (hall forbear faying any Thing 
of the Ufefulnefs of Common- Places in 
General, it being Foreign to my pre- 
fent Purpofe 5 neither is it my Bufi- 
nefs here to relate how favourably the 
Learned, both Ancient and Modern, 
have fpoken of them, and with what 
Suceefs they have us'd 'em. 

It will be abundantly fufficient to- 
wards their Recommendation if I tell 
you that Tnlly was One among the 
Former, and Mr. Lock among the 

But I (hall refer you to what I have 
extracted from the very Learned Mon- 
fieur k Cferc concerning this Matter, 

It may be expe&ed that I mould 
give fome Account of this Method 5 
all that I (hall fay at prefent is, That 
Mr. Lock having drawn it up during 
his Travels abroad, communicated it 
to feveral of his Friends, who mighti- 
ly imporrun'd him to make it Pub- 
lick 5 but he for a long Time declin'd 
it, ( for Reafons which you will find 
in his Efiftle prefixed to this Treatife ) 
tillatlaft, in Compliance whh their 
repeated Requefts, he gave it to Mon- 
ftenr k Clerc, who in the .Year 1686 
Publifb'd it in French^ in the Second 


Epifik Dedicatory, 

Tonic of the BiblJothecjue Vnivtr- 

This Method having met with Ge- 
neral Approbation from the Learned 
I thought it a Pity that any Thing of 
Mr. Lock's mould be hid from any of 
his Country-men, 1 in an unknown 
Tongue: I have therefore made it 
fpeak Englijh, and taken the Freedom 
of Dedicating it to you, with the Ad- 
dition of Two Letters, ( becaufe of 
their Publick life) containing an 
extraordinary and moft ufeful Me- 
thod how to Teach Deaf and Dumb 
Folks to Speak and Write aLanguage, 
invented by that Great Man Jot>* 
Wallis, Dr. in Divinity, Geometry 
Profefibr in Oxford, and Fellow of 
the Royal Society : Who, let it be 
Recorded to his Immortal Hondur, 
was the Firft in England that made 
Art fupply the Defects of Nature, in 
learning Perfons that were Deaf and 
Dumb to Speak and Write diftin&Iy 
and intelligibly. The Method that 
the Doctor prefcribes is fo Plain, Fa- 
miliar and Demonftrative, that any 
Perfon of Common Ingenuity may 
attain this Art with Eafe, and abun- 
dance of Pleafure, 


Epiftle Dedicatory. 

But I am afraid, Sir, I have been too 
tedious, therefore 1 (ball only add this, 
May you goon,asyou have already be- 
gun, to Cultivate a ftri& Friendfhip 
with Virtue and Learning $ and while 
many Young Gentlemen mind nought 
but the Gratifying their foolifh Incli- 
nations, may you purfue the Ratio- 
nal Pleafures of the Mind, whofe 
Fruits are Solid Joy and Comfort 5 in- 
cited thereto on the one Hand by the 
good Example of your Worthy Pa- 
rents, as on the other by that 
of your very Learned Uncle, who fo 
Glorioufly Adorns the Great Pofl he 
is in. 

This, Sir, is the Hearty With and 
Defire of , 

Your Friend and moft 

Humble Servant, 

Monfieur he Clercs Cha- 
racter of Mr. LOCK'S 



About the 


O E 


IN all Sorts of Learning, andypeci- 
ally in the Study of Languages, the 
Memory is the Treafury or Store-houfe, 
but the Judgment the Difpofcr, which 
ranges in Order whatever it hath drawn 
from the Memory : But leg the Me- 
mory JhouldU typrejfed, or Over- bur- v 



tf Mr. Le Clerc's Advice about 

then'd by too many Things , Order and 
Method art to be edited btH> its Affi- 
ftavte. So that when we extract any 
Thing out of an Author which is like to 
be of future ZJfe, we may be able to find 
it without any Trouble. For it would be 
tp little Purpofe to fpend our Time in 
Reading of Bool(s, if we could not apply 
what we read to our TJfe. It would 
bejujl for all the World at ferviceable 
as a great deal of Hou(ho\d-Siuff, when 
if we wanted any particular Thing we 
Cthmella coui(l not tell where to find it. * It is 

Ifuii. an ° ,d Sa y in g» That that is the Trueft 

cap. ii. Poverty, when if you^iave Occafion 
for any Thing, you can't ufe it, be- 
caufe you know not where 'tis laid. 
Many have Wrote, much en this Subje& y 
and I have made Trial of them, but I 
have never met with a better and more 
tafie\ Method ', than that which I receivM 

oii\mMe-from * f Friend, andpublifh'd in French 

thodoi Ui.f omt Time fence. 

fc And I have found, upon fever al Years 

Experience, this Method, which is very 
well adapted, not only to the Latin, but 
alfo to the Greek Tongue, to be extraor- 
dinary ufiful. Neither do I ever look, 
upon my Latin or Greek CoUeBions y 
but I call to mind the Kindnefs of that 


the U'fc of Gmnm-IHaces. Hi 

Excellent and Learned Ptrfirt, who 
taught me that Method. 

At the Entrance indeed upon any 
Study, when the Judgment sr notfufftcj' 
enlly confirm d y nor the Stock oflCnow- 
ledge over large, fa that the Student* 
are not very well acquainted with what js 
worth Colleaing, fcarce anyThing is Ex- 
traftedjbut what will be ujeM hut for a lit- 
tle while ; beeaufe as the judgment grows 
Ripe, thofe Things arc dejpis'd which 
before were had in efieem. v Tet His of 
Service to have ColleUuns of this Kind, 
both that Students may learn, the Art of 
putting "things in Order ^ as aIJo the 
better retain what they Read. 

But hen are Two Things carefully to 
be obfervtd? the Firft is^that we ex- 
traB only thofe Things which are Choice 
.and Excellent , either for the Matter it 
felf, orelfe for the Elegancy of the Ex- 
.yfjfan, and not what comes next 5 
for that Labour mould abate our 
Defre to, go ontrith our Reading 5 nei- 
ther are we to think that, au thofe things 
are to be writ put which are called rVavxau, 
or Sentences. Thofe Things alone are 
. to be picked fiut t which, we cannot Jo rea- 
dily call to mind, or for which we fhould 
want proper Words and Exprejfiom. 
B For 

iv Mr. Le Cletc's Advice about 

'For Inftanct; although the Story in that 
Place of yirgil where thefeWords are 1 , 

Difcke Juftitiam raoniti, & non tem- 

£ nere Divos. 

Being warn'd, by afr^hefe Things, 
learn to do that which is Juft, and 
not to defpifethe Gods, 

is worth taking Notice of, jet 1 would 
noti/ave yon Write thefi Words down, 
tecaufe there is Nothing in the Thing it 
felf, or' in the Manner of Bxpreffion, 
that is above the Reach of any Ordinary 
Capacity. ,«"" *■' ' 

' 'The Second Thing which I would 
have taken Notice of, is, that you don't 
Write out too much, but only what is moft 
Worthy of Obfervation, and to nua\the 
Place of the Author from whence you Ex- 
ifaU it, for cthcrwife it will cauje the 
Lofs of too muchTimt* 

Neither ought any TMng to he Collect- 
ed t»hil/i you are bujted in Readings if 
by taking the Pen in Handfbe Thread of 
your Reading be broken off, for thai will 
make the Reading both Tedious and Vn~ 


the Ufe of Common-Places. 


The PLces we dejigti to extraB from 
are to be marked upon a piece of Paper, 
thai we may do it after we have read the 
Boo\out$ neither is if to he donejujl 
after the Firji Reading over of the Book, 
hut when we have read it a fecond time. 
Thefe Things it's likely may feem Mi' 
ftute and Trivial, hut without 'em great 
T%htg* cannot fubffi^ and thefe being neg- 
le&ed caufe very great Cmfitfson both of 
Memory and Judgment, and that whieh a- 
hove all Things is mo ft to be, valued, Lofs 
of Time. 

Some whootherwife were Men of mojl 
extraordinary Parts, by theNegletityf 
the/e things have committed great Errors, 
which if they had beetrfo happy as to have 
avoided, they would have been much more 
ferviceable to the Learned Worid, andfo 
coufequvttly to Mankind. 

And in good Truth, They who defpift 
fuch Things, do it not fo much from any 
greater /hare of Wit that they have than 
their Neighbours,asfromWantofJudg. 
nteht 3 whence it is thai tbey do not well 
understand how Vfeful Things Order 
and Method are. 

B 2 


- »■ II 

la 1 

1 a 

Ve 4 .. 

1 e « ,. 

A I) 

F 1 i 


lo . 

1 u 

1 U i 

1 a 


1 e 

1 e 

B 1 i 

<J li 

1 o 

la f «. 

I u 


1 a 

1 a 

1 e 

L e 26, 2%. 


H 1 i 

1 l8. 24, 


1 u 

1 ti 

1 a 


1 e 

_ le ~~ 

D li 



■ . 1 1 . 

~~ 1 u 

1 u 

1 a 

la "^ 

I e 

1 e 

E li" 2. 14. 

L li 



1 u 








1 i 




I e 

P 1 I 
1 u 


— To 


— Te 


^ 1 

1 U T 


1 e 

1 a 






1 a 

a 1 a 

1 a 






1 u 

> la 






la ' - 



1 i 



EpiMe. Mr. LockV Letter to Monfienr Toi- 
nard, containing a New and Eajfc. 
Method of making Common-Place 
Books, an exaB Index of which ntaj 
be made in Two Pages. 

I Do at length, Sir, obey you in Pub- 
lifli'mg my Method of making Cm- 
mon-Vlace Books. I am afnamed 
that I fliould befo backward in Comply- 
ing with your Defires •, but that which 
you requefted of me, ieemed to me a 
Thing fo inconfiderable, that I thought 
it not worthy of publick View, efpcci- 
ally in an Age fo abounding with Fine In- 
ventions as ours. 

' You know that I voluntarily commu- 
nicated this Method to you, as I have 
done to many othdrs, to whom I believ'd 
it would not be unacceptable. It was 
not then, as if I defign'd it for my own 
private Ufe alone, that I have hitherto re- 
fus'd the making of it Publick. I was of 0- 
pinion, that the Kefpeft which One ought 
to have for the Publick, would not furfer 
me to preient it with an Invention of 
fo finall an Importance 5 but the Obliga- 
tions which you have laid me under, and 
out Common Friendftrip, do not permit 
me any longer to decline the following 
your Advice. Your laft, Sir, has wholly 
J determined me, and I believe that I ought 



e not to flick at thePabliChing my Method 
c fince yon tell me that you have found 
c it^ery ufcfiil after a Trial of leveral 
c Yrars, as well as thofe of your Friends, 
' to whom you have Communicated it. It 
' is needlels for me here to relate what 
c Profit I my felf have reap'd by the Ufe 

* of it for above Twenty Years. 

' I have fuflidently Entertained you 

* with it when I was at Parts, about 

* Seven or Eight Years ago, while I might 
' have receiv'd great Benefit by your Learn* 
c ed and Agreeable Convention. All the 
*' Advantage that I aim at from this Wri- 

* ting is publickly to teftifie the Efteem 
' and Refpett that I have for you, and to 
' declare how much I am, Sir, Your 4 &c. 

SEfore we come to the Matter in Hand, 
it may not be amifs to remark^ that 
ibis Method is put in the fame Orders 
that^the QolleUions ought to be put in. ToA 
will perceive by the Reading of that which 
follows what the Heads mean, which you fee 
at the ToppftheBack of every Leafcand at 
the Bottomed 7 this Page. 

EBiO NI T E$.] In theGofpel of the Ebb- 
nites, which they called the Gofpel accord- 
ing to the Hebrews, the Hiftory which 
is in Matthew XIX. \6. and the follow- 
ing ones, was thus altefd ; One of the Rich 
men J aid unto him, Mafier, What good thing 
ntuft 1 do that I may have Eternal Life? 
Jefus fail unto him, obey the^Law and the 
Prophets. He anfwered, I have done it. 

14. Jefus faid 'unto him, go fell I 

AdmrarJ- I take a ^vVhke Paper Book of. what 
orumMc $ ze \ t hfok fit, I divide the JTwo Fjrft 

perpendicularly by other Lines, which I 
draw from the Top of the Page to the 
Bottom, as you may fee in the Table or 
Index, which I have put before this Wri- 
ting Afterwards I mark with Ink every 
Fifth J^ineof the Twenty Five that I juft 
now fpoke of. 

f_ The ttber lanes are made with Red 
Leal, but for -Conven'tency one may make 
them with Black Lead^vsDkb it better for 
Ufe than Red Lead.'] 

I pot at the Beginning of every Fjf\h 
Space, or before the Middle, One of the 
Twenty Lasers which are. defign'd for this 
Ufe ; apa a little farther in every Space^ 
One of Jthe'Vowels in their Natural Order. 
Thiols the Index or Table of the whole 
Volume, be it of what Size fbever. 
• The Inde* being thus made, I mark one, ; , 
in the other Pages of the Book, the Margin 
with Black Lead ; I make it about the big' 
flefiof an Inch, or a little bigger, if tie 
Volume be in folio, but in a lefs Volume 
the Margin is proportionably left alfo. 

If I would put any Thing in my, Com- 
mon-Place Book, I look a Head to which 
I may refer it, that I may be able to Enid 


C 5 ) 

it when I have ; Qcc$fion. Every Hta<l 
ought to begin with iome Confiderable 
Word that is Effenjtial to the Matter treated 
of, and of this Word one muft carefully 
obfeive the Firft fetter, and the Vowel 
which follows it \ for upon thefe Two ! 
Letters depends the whole Ufe of our In- 

I. leave out Three Letters of the Alpha- 
bet as ufeleis, to wit, K, Y, W, which 
are fiipplied by C, I, U, Letters of a like 
Power. I put the Letter Q, which. is al- 
ways followed by an U in the Fifth Space 
of Z. By this throwing of the Letter 
Qjnto the laft Space of my Index, I pre- 
ferve its Uniformity, and do not at all 
fliorten the Length of it : For it vefy fel- 
dom happens that one meets with an Head 
that begins with Z U, and I have not 
found fo much a$ One 'ibi the Space of 
Five and Twenty Years, during which 
Time I have made ufe of this Method. 
Yet nevertbeleii, if it be needful, nothing 
will hinder but that you may put it in the 
fame Space with Q.U, provided you make 
fome Sort of Diftiu&ion. 

But one may, for moreEkaSkrffiis,affign 
to Q.a Place at the Bottom of the Index, 
which I have done formerly. 

^ When I meet with aay thing worth put-* 

'•ting into my CoaimonrBlacetBook, Ipte- 

C fently 

V. 060 

adVersariorum methodus. 

fently' look for a proper. Head. Siippofe, 
for Example, the Head were Epiftle ■, I 
look in the Index the Firft, Letter with 
thq Vowel that follows, which in this 
Cafe are E I. If there is found any Num- 
ber in the Space marked E I, that fhows 
methe Space defign'd for Words which 
begin with E, and whpfe Vowel that im- 
mediately follows is f, I muft refer to 
the Word Epiftle in that Page what I 
have to take notice o€ I Write the Head 
in pretty large Letters, fo that the princi- 
pal Word is found in the Margin^ and I 
continue the Line in writing on what I 
have to remark. I conftantly obferve this 
Method, that nought but the Head appear 
in the Margin, and go on without carrying 
the Line again into the Margin. When 
one has thus. pielerv'd the Margin clear, 
the Heads prefent themfelves at Firft Sight 

If in the Index I find no Number in the 
Space E I, I look in my Book the Firft 
Backfide of the Page that I find blank, 
which Backfide in a Book where there is 
nothing elfe but the Index, muft be the 
Second Page. 

I'write then in my Index after E I the 
Number 2, and the Head EPISTLE at 
the Top of the Margin of the Second 
Page, and all that is to be put under this 
Head in the fame Page,' as you fee I have 
done in the Second Page^pf this Writing.' 


(r ) 

Since the Clafs EI. does folely.take.up 
the Second and Third Page, one may tnake 
life of tfiofe Pages only for Words which 
begin, with E, and whofe next Vowel is I, 
as EpicurmfEbiomtcs, Epigram, Edi8 r &c. * see the 
The Reafon why I always begin at the Bottom of 
Top of the Back of the Page, and thic I ^ e ™ 
afftgn to one Clafs the Two Pages which * 
face one another, rather than a whole Leaf, 
is that the Heads of this Clafs may appear 
all at once, otherwife you muft be at the 
Trouble of turning over the Leaf. 

Whensoever I would write a new Head, 
in my Common-Place Book, I look prefent- 
ly in my Index for the Chara^eriftiqkLet- 
ters of the Word, and I lee by the Num- 
ber which follows them where the Page 
affign'd to t;he Clafs of this Head is. But 
if there be no Number to be found, I muft 
look/ the Firft Back of the next Blank Page. 
I mark its Number in the Index, and fp 
I preferve this ?age, with the Right.Side 
of the following Leaf for this new Clafs. 
Let the Word be for Example Adpfrfyria^ 
if I fee no Number ip the Space A E, 1 look 
the Firft Empty Back of a Leaf, which 
finding in the Fourth Page, I put" in the 
Space A E the Number 4, and in the 4th 
Page the Head Adverfaria, with all that 
ought to be put under this Head, as I have 
already done. 
After that, this Fourth Page with the 
V. Fifth' that follows it, is referv'd for 

C 2 the 

V. (8) 

the Qafi A E ; that is to fay for 
Heads which begin with A and where 
the following Vowel in the Word is E, 
as Age/thus Aeheron, Anger, &c. 

When the Two- Pages defign'd for 
this head are quite full, then look for 
the Back of the next Blank Page : If 
it is that which immediately follows, 
I write at the Bottom of the Margin 
in the Page that I have laft 
filled up, the Letter V, that is Verte, 
Turn over •, and likewife at the Top of 
the Page following. If the Pages which 
immediately N follow are already taken 
up by other Clafles,, I write at the Bot- 
tom of the Page laft rilled up the Num- 
ber of the next Back of the Page. I 
fet down again the Wad of which it 
treats^ under which I go on to write 
what I have to put into my CoMthon- 
f lace-Book, as if it were in the fame 
l>age. At the Top of this new Back I 
•fet down alio the Number of the Page 
which has been laft filled up. By thefe 
Numbers, which refer to one another, 
the i ft of which is at theEnd ofonePage, 
and the 2d at the Beginning df another, 
one reads the Matter which is fepara- 
ted as well as if there was nothing be- 
tween them. For by this Reciprocal 
Reference of Numbers, one turns over 
as one Leaf all thbfe Which are between 
them, as if they were join'd together. 


C 9 ) 

You have an Example of it in the 
Third and/Fourteenth Pages. 

Every Time ' I put a Number at the 
Bottom of a Page, I put it alfo in the 
Index i but when I put only V, I make 
no Alteration in the Index ; the Reafon 
of which you will learn by Ufe. 

If the principal Word of the Head 
be a Monofyllable, ( or a Word of One 
Syllable) and begins with a Vowel, this 
Vowel is at the fame Time both the 
Firft Letter of the Word, and the Cha- 
ratleriftick Vowel ; fol write the Word 
Art in A a, and Elf in E e. 

It may be ieen by what I have faid, 
that one is to begin to write every Glafe 
of Words on the Back of the Page; 
It may from thence happen that the 
Backs of all the Pages may be full, 
while there may be*Righl: Sides enough » see the 
which do yet remain empty. If you fifteenth, 
have a Mind then to fill up the Book, fjygj* 
you may affign thefe Right Sides, which % eBt h ?l. 
are yet entirely blank, to new Clafles. ges> &c. 

If any one thinks that thefe Hundred 
Claffes are not fufficient to take in all 
Sorts of SubjeQs without Conftfion, he 
may, following the fame Method, in- 
creafe the Number to Five Hundred, by 
adding a Vowel. But having try'd both 
the one and^the other Metttbd; J pre- 
fer the. former, and Ufe will. convince 
thofe that (hall make Tryal-of it that 
V,it is fufficient for all Subjects, efpecial- 


V. ( io ) 

ly if they have a Book for every Sci- 
ence, in which they make their Col le- 
gions, or. at leaft Two, for the Two 
Heads to which we may refer all our 
Knowledge, to wir, Moral and Natu- 
ral Philofopby. 

One may alfo add to them a Third 
Book, which you may call the Science, 
or Knowledge of S/£;zj,which refpectsthe 
life of Words, and is of far larger Ex- 
tent than the Ordinary Critical Art. 

As .for the Language in which one 
ought to expjjels the Titles,! believe the 
Latin Tongue to be the molt Conveni- 
ent, provided one always obferves the 
Nominative Cafe, leaft in DiiTyllables, 
(or Wqrds of Two Syllables; or in 
Monolyllables which begin with a Vow- 
el,the Change: which happens in the Ob* 
lique Cafe«lh.ould caul? Confufion. But 
k does not, much matter what Language 
you make Ufe of, provided you do not 
mix the Beads of different Languages 

To remark a Place in an Author from 
whom I would colleft any Thing j 
make ufe' of this Method : Before j[ . 
write down any thing I put the Name 
of my Author in my Common-? lacer 
Book) and, under that Name, the Title 
of the '. Treatife I am reading, the Vo- 
jjwne, fhe 'Yitne and Place of the Edi- 
tion, and (what ought never to be o- 

mitted ) 

(. M >. 

mitted ) the Number of the Pages that 
the whole Book contains. For Exam- 
ple, I put in the Oafs M. A. Mdr- 
Jhami Canon Chronicur, JF.gypt incus, 
Gracus, & Difqitijitiones, Vol. Lond. 
1672, p. 626. This Number of the 
Pages ferves me for the future to mark 
the Particular Treatife of the Author, 
and the Edition that I make ufe of. 1 < 
have no more Need to mark the Place 
otherwife, than by putting in the Num- 
ber of the Page from whence I have 
Collected/what I have writ over the 
Number of the Pages of the whole Vo- 
lume. You will fee an Example of it 
in Acberufia, where the Number 259 
is over the Number 626, that is to fay, 
the Number of the Pages where the Place 
is that is treated of, over the Number 
of the Pages of all the Volume. So I not 
only avoid the Trouble of writing Ca- 
non, ©V. but I can alfo, by the Help'of 
the Rule of Three, find the fame Paffege 
in any other Edition whatever, by look- 
ing the Number of Pages that the Edi- 
tion I have not made- ufe : of contains ; 
fipce the Edition which I have ufed ha- 
ving 626 Pages, hath given me 259. I 
confefs one does not always hit upon 
tire very Page, becaufe of the Spaces 
which may be made in different Editi- 
ons, which are not always propor- 
tionally equal •, but neverthelefs you are 
r . never very far off of the Page'; and 1t- is 


much better to find out the Paflage with- 
in fome few Pages of the Place, than to 
be at the Trouble of turning over the 
whole Book to find it : as you muft 
do if the Book has no Index, or where 
the Index is not very corre£t 

A CHERUS IA. ] Tratum, fi3a mortu- 
orum eft Locus prope Mem* 
pbim,juxta Paludem, quam vocant Acke- 
rufiam, &c. This is a Paflage taken out 
of the Firft Book of Diodorus Si cuius, 
the Senfe of which is this : The Fields, 
where they feign the Habitation of the 
Dead to be, is a Place not far from 
Memphis, near the Matfh called Ache- 
. rujia, where there are moft Delightful 
Fields, with Lakes and Woods of Lotus 
and Calamus* 

It is not without Reafon then that 
Orpheus fays the Dead inhabit thole 
Places, becaufe it is there that the moft 
and greateft Funeral Solemnities of the 
Mgyptjans are Celebrated ; they carry 
the Dead over the River Nile, and the 
Marfh Acberufia, and lay them in Sub- 
terraneous Vaults. 

There are other Stories among the 
Grecians concerning the Shades below, 
which are very like thofe Stories which 
are invented at this Day in Mgypt. For 



£hey call the Boat.which carries over the 
Dead Darts, arid" a Piece of Money is 
given to the Waterman for his Pallage, 
whole Name in the Language of that 
Country is called Charon. Not far from 
this Place there is the Temple of 
Gloomy Hecate, alio the Gates of Qcy- 
tus and Lethe, (hut up with great Bra- 
zen Bars ; there are alfo other Gates, 
called the Gates of Truth, before which 
ftands the Statue of Jufiice without au 
Head. Marjham 14^. 


V *** 


( 14 r \ 

EBIONITES.] S?ll all that tfcou bag, 
and give -if to the ? °?% *b*ri come tit?]} 
follow me: Bui at that tbf.Rtcb Man be- 
gan to (cratch his Head, and was not at 
all pleas' 'd with the 'Advice that Jefu$ 
Save him. And the toritfaid unto bifi?- 
how Jay you I have fulfilled the 'Law ana] 
the Prof bets, fihce it is written in the 
haw, thou Jhalt love thy Neighbour as 
ttiy'Jelfi and lo there are many of thy 
brethren, the Children of Abjaharri, «p& 
have bad Raiment, and die viitb Hunger* 
while no Help is adminifired to them 
fromyou, thd 'yourHoufe abounds with all 
Good Things ? And having turnd to Si- 
mon, his Difciple, who fat next him, Si- 
mon, thou Son of Johanna, faid he, it 
is eajier for a Camel to go through the 
Eye of a Needle, than for a Rich Man 
to enter into the kingdom of Heaven. 
Ebion alter'd this Paflage of theGofpeL 
becaufe he did not acknowledge Chrirc 
to be the Son of God, not a Law-giver, 
but a baie Interpreter of the Law which 
was given by Mofes. Grotius ±1$-. 


C itf ) 

HERETICKS.] Noftrum 'igitur jult 
el'igere & opt are meliora^ ut ad veftram 
correQionem aditum haberemus. Augu- 
filnus Tuw. VI, Col. \\6. jol. Bq/ilea 
1542. contra Epiji. Mamcbaiy quam va- 
cant Fundamenti. " We believed that 
" other Methods ought to be taken , in 
" Order to make you TetracT: your Er- 
" rors •, Affronts and Inve£tives are by 
" all Means to be avoided, ill Ufage 
" and Perfection are never likely to 
"fucceed; but the only Way to draw 
w you is by kind Difcourfes and Exhorta- 
" tions, which may demonftrateourten- 
" der Concern foryou 5 according to that 
" of the Scripture, a Servant of the 
tc Lord ought not Quarrelfom, but 
" Gentle to all Men * Apt to teach,Pati r ! 
" ent,and with Modefty,to reprove thofe 
t( that are notlike-minded.Let thofe Per- 
fons rigoroufly treat you, who know not 
how difficult it is'to come to the Know- 
ledge of Truth, and to avoid Errors. Let 
thofe Perfons rigoroufly treat you, who 
know not how hard a Matter it is, and 
and how feldom Effected, to caufe 
Carnal Imaginations to give way to Spi- 
ritual and Pious ones. Let thofe Perfons 
rigoroufly treat you, who are not fertfi- 
ble of the extream Difficulties that there 
are to purine the Eye of the inward 
Man, in Order to make it capable of 
perceiving Truth, which is the Sun of 

jothe Soul Let 


■(■I* ) 

ricubfum nobis a&modutn atque etiam 
mijerabile eft, tot nunc fides exiftere, 
quot voluntates 5 £? tot nobis doUrinas 
effe quot mores, &c. Hilarius, p. 211. 
in Lib. ad Conjiantium Auguflum. Bafil. 
1 570, Vol It is a Thing both Deplora- 
ble and Dangerous, that there are now 
as many Confeffions of Faith as there 
are Wills, as many Opinions as Incli- 
nations, and as many Sources of Blaf 
phemy as there are Vices, whilft we 
make as many Confeffions ofFaith as we 
pleaie, andGlofs upon them as we think 
fit. And as there is but One God, One 
Lord, and One Baptifm, fo there is but 
Oneraith, which One Faith we Re- 
nounce when we make many different 
Confeffions •, and certainly this Diverfi- 
ty is the Caule that there is no mwe 
true Faith to be found. Wearecon- 
vinc'd, that after the Council at Nice 
there was nothing, either on one Side 
or t'other, but writing Confeffions of 
Faith. And while they contend about 
Words, while they debate about Novel 
Queftions, while they difputc about E- 
quivocal Terms, while they complain 
of Authors, while every Body endea- 
vours to advance his own Party, while 

24110 one can agree, 


HERETICKS.] Let thofe Petfons rigo- 
roufly treat you,who know not how many 
Sighs and Groans it cofts before one can 
attain to any fmall Knowledge of the 
Divine/ Being. Finally, let thofe Per- 
ibns rigoroufly treat you, who were ne- 
ver feduc'd 1>y fuch Errors as they fee 
you have been deceiv'd by. I pals by 
that moft pure Wifdom, to the Know- 
ledge of which very few Spiritual Per- 
lbns arrive at in this Life ; yet although 
they know it but in very fmall Meafure, 
becaufe they are Men, yet they know 
it without doubting. For in the Catho- 
lick Church it is not Penetration of 
Wit, nor Depth of Knowledge, but the 
. Simplicity of the Faith, which makes 
People fure and fafe. 

Barbari quippe homines "Roman*, imo. 
pot i us human* eruditions expertes, qui 
nihil omnino fount , nifi quod a DoSori- 
bus fuis audiunt $ quod audiunt hoc fe- 
guuntur r Gfc. Salvianus -f-fi. The Senfe 
of which take as follows. This Bifhop 
ipeaking of the Arian Gothk and Van- 
dals, They are a Barbarous People, 
lays he r who have not any Tafte of the 
Roman Learning, and who are ignorant 
even of thofe Things with which almoft 
all the reft of Mankind are acquainted ; 
they know nothing but what they have 
learnt from their Do&ors, and mind 
nothing but what they have heard from 
them. Whence People io ignorant as 


C« ) 

tjjefe are^ find themfelves under a Ne- 
cecity oflearning the Myfteries of the 
(*<}ijpel ? rather from the Inftru£tioiK 
liffcicn are given them, than from the 
Idling of Books, therefore the Tra- 
ditionr ^nd received Dd&rine of their 
Makers are the only Rule that they 
IoIIqw, became they know nothing but 
wftat they have taught 'em. They are 
HeretielsSjbut they know, not that they are 
to. They are fb indeed m our.Efteem, 
hut they don't at all believe it $ yea, on 
$he contra^, tjiey js<?koji themielves to 
be true GarooHcfcs, and Brand us with 
the Jfife qf i Hereticks. VThey judge 
therefore of us juft as we dp of them. 
We are perftaded with 1 our felves that 
they do Wrong to the Divine Generati- 
on,in maintaining the Son to be inferiour 
to the Father. They imagine that we 
derogate from the Glory of the Father 
becaufe we believe them to be Equal. 
The Truth is on our Side, but they pre* 
tend it is on theirs. We give all due 
Honour to God, and they think that 
weir Belief tends more to the Honour 
of God than ours. They are wanting 
in their Duty to God, but this they 
count the higheft Duty of Religion $ 
and they make true Pietjj to conuft in 
that which we have a quite contrary O- 
pinion of. They are then in ah Error, 
but yet they are Sincere-, and it proceeds 
V. not ftom an Hatred, but Love of God. 
E HE- 

V. ( 22 ) 

HERETJCKS.] For they pretend that 
by it they do better teftifie the Refpeft 
r v :y have for God, and their Zeal for 
LI., Glory. Therefore although they 
have not a right Faith, yet they never- 
thelefs look upon it as a perfect Love 
of God.' How thefe Perfons will be 
puniftipd'for their Errors at the Day of 
Judgment the great Judge of the Uni- 
verfe alone Ijriows. In the mean Time 
I believe .that God exercifes his Patience 
towards them, fyecaufe he fees that their 
Heart' is more fight . than their Faith- 
and that when they do deceive them- 
Telyes, it is an AfFe&ion for Piety that 
rs the Caufe - of -their Ettot. 


( *4 ) 18. 

one can agree, while they Anathema- 
tize one another, there is fcarce any that 
flicks clofe to Jefus Chrift. What Change 
was there in the Confeflion of Faith but 
lift Year ? The Firft Synod of the Nfi 
cene Council ordains that nothing fhould 
be faid concerning the Homoufign ; the 
Second orders and ordains that they 
fhould fpeak of it ; the Third excufcs 
the Fathers of the Council, and pretends 
that they took the Word Oujia fimply •, 
laftly, the Fourth, inftead of excufing, 
condemns "em. As to the Refemblance 
of the Son with his Father, which is the 
Confeflion of Faith of thefe unhappy 
Times, they difpute whether he is like 
in the Whole, or only in Part. Behold 
what Fine Inquirers thefe are into the Se- 
crets of Heaven ! In the mean while^ 
it is upon the Account of thefe Confefc 
fions of Faith about the invifible Myfte- 
ries, and about our Faith in God, that 
we thus Calumniate one another. We 
make Confeflions every Year, and alio 
every Month $ we Repent of what we 
have done, we Defend thofe that Repent 
of 'em, and afterwards Anathematize 
thofe We have defended : So we Con- 
demn either the Opinions of others in 
our ielves, or our own Opinions in o- 
thers; and in thus Tearing one another 
to Pieces, we have been theCaufe&f 
each other's Ruin. 



A Letter of Doctor John Wallis to Ro- 
berfBoyle, Efq^ concerning the fad 
Dottors Efay of Teaching 4 ?erfm 
Dumb and Deaf to Speak, and to 
Underftand a Language 5 together 
with the Snccefs thereof made appa- 
rent to his Majefiy, the Royal Society, 
and theVniverftty of 'Oxford. 


I Did acquaint you a while fince, That 
( befide the Confideration of , 
which 1 had in Hand ) I had under- 
taken another Task, (almoft as Hard as 

to make Mr. underftand Reafon) to 

Teach a Perfbn Dumb and Deqf 3 to Speak, 
zx&toViiikrftattia Language. Of which it 
he could do <$ther,the other would be more 
eafie 5 but his knowing neithej? makes 
both larder: And tho' the former may 
be thought the mote difficult, the latter 
may perhaps require as much of T*me. 
For If -a "cohfiderable Time be requifite, 
to? him that can 1peak One, to learn a Se- 
cond Language, much more for him that 
knows None, to learn the Firft. 


I told you in my laft, that my Mute was 
now at leaftSemivoca/is •, whereof becaufe 
you defire a more particular Information, 
I thought my felf obligM'to' give you this 
brief Account of that whole Affair , that 
you may at once perceive, as weilvupon 
what Ooufider«ipns I was induced: to At- 
tempt that Work, and what I did.propofe 
to my' fetf- as Feafible therein, as what 
Sucfefs"had hitherto attended that E$ty. 

The fask hr ielf confifts of Two Very 
different Parts^ each of which doth rendter 
the other more difficult. For, betide that 
which appears upon the Firft View, to 
teach a Perfon who cannot Hear to Pro- 
nounce the Sound of Words ; there is that 
other, of teaching him to Vnderftand a 
Language v T&ui know the Signification of 
thofe Woife whether Spoken or Writte^ 
whereby' he may both exprefc his own 
Senfe, and underftand the Thoughts of o- 
thersV withqut which latter, that former 
were only to fpeak like a Parrot, or to 
write ; like aiScrivener, who underftanding 
no Language but Englljh^ tranfcribes a 
Piece I of LqtjijjWelJb, or Irijh •, or like a 
Printer o£\Greek or Arabiek, who knows 
neither the" Sound nor Signification of what 
hePrintetfi, . 

Now. ijhopgh I did nofc. apprehend ei- 
ther of th^fej impoffiblei . yet, that each 
ofthem dqth render the other more hard,, 
was ioobvions. as that I could not be igno- 
rant of it. For how eafily ttietlnderftand- 



ing of a Language is attain'd by the Bene- 
fit of Difcourfe we fee every Day ■, not 
only in thofe , who knowing One 
Language already, are now to learn a Se- 
cond , but (which doth more refemble 
the prefent Cafe ) in Children, who as yet 
knowing none, are now to learn their Firft 

For it is very certain, that no Two Lan- 
guages can be fo much different the one 
from the other, but that the Knowledge of 
the one will be fubfervient to the Gaining 
of the other; not only becaufe there is 
now a Common Language, wherein the 
Teacher may Interpret to the' Learner the 
Signification of, thofe Words and Notions 
which he knows not, and exprefi his own 
Thoughts to him-, but; like'wile ! ( which' 
is very confiderable) becaufe the'' CWwot 
Notions of Language , wherein all or moft 
Languages do agree, and alfo-To many of 
the Particularities thereof as are common 
to the Language he know?; already, and; 
that which he is to learn, ( which- will be ; 
very many ) • are already , kn'oVra -, ' and ' 
therefore a -very 'cpnfiderable r^trt already 
difpafcjh'd ' ©F that Work, which will be 
neceffaiy/'for the Teaching of a- "Firft Lan- 
guage to hijh who as yet krioi^s none. 

1 But to this- Drfadvahtage (of teaching 
a Firft Language) when that offteafnefs 
is"fuperadded it rrtuft needs augment the 
Difficulty ; lincc it is- .itianifeftlyevideht 
from Experience, that* the -wioft i&varira- 


geous Way of Teaching a Child his Fiift 
Language is that of Perpetual Difcourje^ 
not only what is particularly addrefs'd to 
himfelf, as well in pleafing Divertiie- 
ments, or delightful Sportings, (and 
therefore infinuates itielf without any irk- 
fome or tedious Labour) as what is direcV 
ly intended for his more ferious Infor- 
mation : But that Difcourfe alio which 
pafleth between others , .where, without 
Fains or Study, he takes. Notice of What 
ASHons in the Speaker do accompany fuch 
Words, and what Eflfe&s they do produce 
in thole to whom they are directed \ which 
doth, by Degrees, infinuate the Intendments, 
of thole Words. 

( And as that Deafncfs makes it the more 
difficult to teach him a Language, fo on 
the other Hand that Want of Language 
makes it more hard to teach him how to 
fpeak or pronounce the Sounds. For there 
being no other Way to direct his Speech, 
than by teaching him how the Tongue, 
the Lips, the Palate, and other Organs of 
Speech are to be apply'd and mov'd in the 
Forming of luch Sounds as are required 4 
to the End that he may, by Art, pronounce 
thole Sounds which others do hyCufiom^, 
they know not how. It may be thought 
lard enough to expreis hr Writing, even 
to one who understands, it very well, thole 
veryNice Curiofities and Delicacies of Mo- 
tion, which maft be obferved (though 
we heed it not) by him, who without 


Help of his Ear to guide his Tongue, (hall 
form that Variety of Sounds we ufe in 
Speaking : Many of which Curiofities 
are fo Nice and Delicate, and the Difte« 
rence in Forming thofe Sounds fo very Sub- 
tile, that moft of our felves, who pro* 
nounce them every Day, are not able, 
without a very Serious Confideration, to 
give an Account by what Art or Motion 
our felves form them j much lefs to teach 
another how it is to be done. And if, 
by writing to one who underftands a Lan- 
guage, it be thus difficult to give Inftru- 
£lions, how, without the Help of Hear- 
ing, he muft utter thofe Sounds, it muft 
needs increafe the Difficulty, when there 
is no other Language to expreis it in, but 
that of Dumb Signs. 

Thefe Difficulties (of which I was well 
aware ) did not yet fo far difcourage me 
from that Undertaking, but that I did Hill 
conceive it poffible that both Parts of this 
Task might be efte&ed. 

As to the Firft of them ; Tho' I did not 
doubt but that the Ear doth as much guide 
the Tongue in Speaking, as the Eye doth 
the Hand in Writing, or Playing on the 
Lute i and therefore thofe who by Acci- 
dent do wholly, lofe their Hearing, lofe al- 
io their Speech, and confequently become 
Dumb as well as Deaf-, (for it is in a 
manner the fame Difficulty for one that 
Hears not, to fpeak well, as for him that 
is Blind, to write a fair Hand ). Yet fines- 

F x we 


we fee that 'tis poffible for a Lady to at- 
tain fo great a Dexterity, jis, in the Dark, 
to play on a Lute, though to that Va- 
riety of nimble Motions, the Eyes Dire- 
ction, as well as the Judgment of the Ear, 
might feem neceffary to guide the Hand -, 
I did not think ic im poffible, but that the 
Organs of Speech might be taught to ob- 
ferve their due Poftures, though neither 
the Eye behold their Motion, nor the Ear 
difcern the Sound they make. 

And as to the other, that "of Language, 
might feem yet more poffible : For fince 
that in Children, every Day the Know- 
ledge of Words, with their various Con- 
ftruftionsand Significations, is by degrees 
attain'd by the Ear, fo that in a few Years 
they arrive to a competent Ability of ex- 
preuing themfelves in their Firft Language, 
at leaft as to the more ufual Parts and No* 
tions of it, why fhould it be thought 
impoffible that the Eye (though with 
fome Disadvantage) might as well apply 
foch Complication of Letters, or other 
Characters, to repreient the various Con- 
ceptions of the Mind, as the Ear -, a like 
Complication of Sounds? For though, 
as things how are, it be very true that* 
Letters are, with us, the immediate Chara- 
cters of Sounds, as thole of Sounds are of 
Conceptions, yet is there nothing, in the 
Nature of the Thing it felf, why Letters 
and Characters might not as properly be 
applied to repiefent immediately, as by 


( 3» ) 

the Intervention pfSounds, what our Con- 
ceptions are. 

■Which is fo great a Truth, (though' 
not fo generally taken Notice of) that 
'tis pra&iced every Day j not only oy the 
Chjnefes, whofe whole Language is faid 
to be made up of fuch Characters as to 
rapreient Things and Notions indepen- 
dent on the Sound of Words ; and is there- 
fore indifferently %>k?h by thoie who 
differ not in the Writing of it •, ( like as 
whar, in Figures,, we write i, 2^, 3, for 
One, Tw t Three \ : a frenchman^ for Ex- 
ample, reads LW, Deux, Trm) But, in 
Part, alio amongft our ■, as in the 
Numeral Figures now mentioned, and ma- 
nyiother Characters; of Weights and Me- 
tals, ufed indifferently by divers Nations 
to fignifie the fame Conceptions, though 
exprefled by a different $oa\rul of-Wofds-j 
and more frequently in theijPt^iee of 
Specious Afitbmetick, and Qpqranous of 
Algebra, excelled in fuch, Symbols, as fo 
little need the Jsntef vention ot ^oids to 
make known their^ Meaning, that, when 
.different Perfdn* come p expiels, i a Words 
theSenfeofthpfe Characters, ,thejf"wilj as 
little agree upon the fame Words, tho' 
all ekprefe the fame Senfc a^TwOTranfla- 
torS of one and the fame Book into ano- 
ther Language. 

And though | will not difpute the Pra-' 

fticatPoffibility of introducing, an Uxiver- 

fdl Cbaraller, in which all Nations, tho* 

F 2 of 


of different Speech, (hall expreft their 
common Conceptions \ yet that fome Two; 
orThree(or more) Perfons may,by Confcnt, 
agree upon fuch Characters, whereby to ex* 
preis each to other their Senfe in Writing, 
without attending the Sound of Words, is 
fo far from an Impoffibility, that it muft 
needs be allowed to be very Feafible/ if 
not Facile. And if it may be done by new? 
invented Characters, why not as well by 
thofe already in ufe > < Which though to 
thole who know their common Ufe may 
fignifie Sounds; yet to thofe who know it 
not, or do not attend it, may be as imme- 
diately applied to fignifie Things or Noti- 
ons, as if they fignified nothing elfe -, and 
fo long as it is purely Arbitrary by what 
Character to exprels fuch a Thing or No- 
tion, we may as well make ufe of that 
Character or Collection of Letters, to ex- 
prefs the Thing to the Eyes of him that is 
Deaf, by which qthers exprels the Sound 
or Name of it to thofe that Hear. So that 
indeed that fhall be to him a real Chara- 
cter, which expieffeth to another a Vocal 
Sound, but fignifieth to both the fame 
Conception y which is to uhderftand the 
Language. : 

To thefe Fundamental Grounds of Pof- 
Ability in Nature, I may next add a Con- 
iideration which made me think it Moral- 
ly poffible ; that is, not impartible to fuc- 
ceed in Pra&ice. Andhecaufe I am now 
giving an Account to One who is fo good 


a Friend to Mathematicks, and Profi- 
cient therein, I (hall not doubt but this 
Confideration will have the Force of a 
great Suafive. Confidering therefore from 
how few and defpicable Principles the 
whole Body of Geometry, by continual 
Confequence, is infbrced-j if fo fair a Pile, 
and curious Structure, may be rais'd, and 
ftand fall upon fo fmall a Bottom, I could 
not think it incredible, that we might at- 
tain fome confiderable Succeft in this De- 
%n, how little foever we had firft to be- 
gin upon * and from, thofe little Actions 
andGeftures, which have a kind of Na- 
tural Significancy in them, we might, if 
well managed, proceed gradually to the 
Explication of a Compleat Language, and 
withal direct to thole Curiofitjes of Moti- 
on and Pofture in the Organs of Speech, 
requifite to the Formation of a Sound de- 
fired, and, fo to effect both Parts of what 
we intend. 

My next Inducement to undertake it, 
was a Confideration of , the Perfon (which, 
in a Work of th|s ; .fefcrore^ is of no finali 
Concernment),; who wat repjefented to 
me as very Ingenious and Apprehenlive, 
(and therefore a very fit Subject to make 
an Eflay upon) and fo far, at leaft a Ma- 
thematician as to draw Pictures $ wherein, 
I was told he had attain'd fo good Ability, 
which did induce me to believe that he 
was not uncapable of the Patience, which 
Will be neceflary to attend the,Cutip|fity of 


( 34) 

Aofe little Varieties in the Articulation of 
Sounds, being already accuftomed to ob- 
ferve and imitate thofe little Niceties in 
a Face, without which it is not poflible to 
Draw a Pj&ure Well. 

I fhall add this alfo, That, once, he could 
have fpoken, though fo long ago that ( I 
think) he doth fcarce remember it. But 
having, by Accident, when about 'Five 
Years of Age, loft his Hearing, he conft- 
quentty toft his Speech alfo; not all at 
once, but by degrees, in about half a 
Year's Time : Which though it do con- 
firm what I was faying but now, how need- 
ful it is for the Ear to guide the TOngite 
in Speaking, (fince that Habit of Speak- 
ing, which was attain'd by Hearing, was' 
loft with it) and might therefore diftou- 
rage the Uriderftandtng -, yet I was there- 
by ^ery much fecured, that Jris Want oF 
Speech was but a Consequent of his Want 
of Hearing, and did not proceed original* 
ly from an Indifpofition in the Organs of 
^Speech to form thofe Sounds. And tho' 
the JtfeglefcT:- of it in his younger Years, 
when the Organs of Speech being yet ten* 
der, were more pliable, might now rendrt 
them lefs Capable of that AccuratertKt 
which thofe of Children attain uirfb, 
(whereof we have daily Experience^ it 
being found very difficult, if not impoffi- 
He, to teach a Foreigner well in Years the 
Accurate Pronouncing of that Sound ot 
Language, which, in his tender Years, .he 


had not learned ) 

fpeak but fo welif as a Foreigner, 

Years, may l^xtMo ? fy^h>£sg^/b^.js3i,at < 
ftiall be farther w^foojLto that Accura ' 
nefs which a Nativb^ATpffl^^tQIflU 
attains unto, may, to anThtrffieWp^fu- 
mate, be very well diipenced whh ? 

Having thus acquainted you with thole 
Confiderations which did induce me to at- 
tempt it, left you may think I build too 
confidently there upon, and judge me guil- 
ty of too much Vanity, in promifing my 
(elf a greater Succefs than can in Reafon 
be hoped for, it will next be neceffary to 
give you fome Account what Meafure of 
Succefs I might propbfe to my Jelf as pro- 
bable in fuchan Undertaking. 

And as to the Firft Part of it, (that of 
Speaking) though I did believe, that much 
more & to be Effected than is commonly 
thought Feafible ; and that it was poffible 
for him fo to fpeak as to be underftood; 
yet I cannot promife my felf rhat he (hall 
ipeak fo Accurately, but that a Critical 
Eat may eafily dtfcerii lome Failures, or 
little Differences from the ordinary Tone 
or Pronunciation of other Men ; (Juice 
j that we lee the like every Day, when not 
Foreigners only, but thofc of our own 
Nation in the femoter Paxts of it, can 
hwdly fpeak fo Accurately, as riot to dif- 
coter a confiderable Difference from what 
is the common Dialed or Tone at London.) 
And this not only upon the Confidesation 



laft mentioned, concerning the Organs, of 
Speech lefs pliable to thofe Sounds to 
which they were not from the Firft accu- 
ftotped) but efpecially upon that other 
Confidefation, concerning the Ears Ufeful- 
nefs to guide and correQ: the Tongue. For 
as I doubt not but that a Perfon who knows 
well how to Write, may attain by Cuftom 
fuch a Dexterity as to Write in the Dark 
tolerably well, yet it could not be expect- 
ed that he (hould perform it with the fame 
Elegancy as if he law the Motions of his 
Hands ; fo neither is it reafonable to be 
expected, that he who cannot Hear, tho' 
he may know how to Speak truly, (hould 
yet perform it fo Accurately as if he had 
the Advantage of his Ear alfo. 

Nor can I promife, nor indeed hope, 
that how Accurately foever he may learn 
to Speak, he (hould be able to make fo 
great life of it as others do. For iince 
that he cannot Hear what others (ay to 
him, as well as exprefs his own Thoughts 
to them, he cannot make fuch Ufe of it 
in Difcourfe as others may. And though 
it may be thought poflible that he may in 
Time difcern by the Motion of the Lips^ 
vifible to the Eye, what is faid to hifflj 
(of which I am loth to deliver a pofitive 
Judgment, lince much may be faid cdnje- 
£fcurally both Ways), yet this cannot be 
expected, till at leaft be be fo perfe&h/ 
Matter of the Language, as that, by a 
few Letters known, he may be able to fup* 


C 37 ) 

ply the reft of the Word ; and by a few 
Words, the reft of the Sentence, or at leaft 
the Senfe of it, hy a probable Conje£tur$, 
(as when we Decipher Letters written in 
Cipher) For, that the Eye can actually 
dticem *H the Varietiesrof Motion, in the 
Organs of. Speech, and fee what Sounds 
are made by rhefe Motions, ( of which 
many are inward, and are not expos*d to 
the Eye at all) is not imaginable; , 

But as to the other Branch of our De- 
fign, concerning the Underftanding of a 
Language, I lee nojleaibn at all to doubt, 
but that he may attain This; as perfectly as 
tbofe that Hear * and that, allowing the 
like Time and Exereife, as to other Men 
is requifite to attain the Perfe&ion of a 
Language, and the Elegance of it, he may 
Underftand as well, ard Write as good 
Language as other Men* and (abating 
only what doth, dire&ly depend upon 
Sonnd, as Tones, Cadencies,, and fuch 
Punctilio's) no whit inferior to what he may 
attain to, if he had his Hearing as others, 
have. And what I fpeak of him in parti- 
cular, I mean as well of any other Ingeni- 
ous Perfon in his Condition •, who, I be- 
lieve,, might be taught to ufe their Book 
and Pen aswellasothers, if a right Courfe 
were taken to that Purpofe. 

To tell you next, what Courfe I have 

hitherto ufed towards this Defign, it will. 

not be ib neceflary. For ftiould I defcend to 

Particulars, it would be too tedious * ef- 

G pecially 

pecially fihce they are to be ufcd very in- 
differently, aqd varied as the prelent Cafe 
and Ciiicumftance do require ; and as to 
the General Way, it is fufficiently intima- 
ted, already. 

As' to that of Speech,- Imuft firft,by 
the moft flghi-ficant Sjjgns I can, make him 
to underftand in what PofUire and Motion 
J would have him apiply hisTongue, Lips, 
and £ther Organs Of Speech, to the form- 
ing of toch a Sound as 1 direft. Which 
if I. hit right, I confirrift him in it-, if he 
mifs, 1 fignifie to h]m in what he differed 
from my- 'Direction, 2 and to what Circum- 
Irances he itiuft attend to mend it. By 
which Means, with r iome Trials atid a 
little Patience, he learns firft One, then 
another Sound i and, by frequent&epeti- 
tions, is cohfirm'd ih it L , or (if he chance' 
to forget) recovers k again. ' mi... 
■ And for "this Work I was lb far prepa- 
red beforehand, that I had heretofore, 
upon -anbther Occafton, ( in my T; r&the 
be Lotfitt/a, prefixed to VRf'&rawmdfi for 
the Eaglijb Tongue) 'confideted very ex- 
ac%- (what few Attend to) the Accurate 
Formation of all Sounds' in Speaking,; ( at 
leaft as to our own Language, and thofef 
knew) withour which it- were in vaih to 
let upon the Task. Foi^f we do not kttWty 
or not confider, hew we Apply our own Or- 
gans in forcing thofeSounds we fpeak, it 
istobtlikefy, that we ftaM, this WayTeacfc 


( 39) 

As to that of Teaching him the Lan- 
guage, I mutt, (as Mathematicians do 
from a few Principles firff grafted) from 
that little Stock (that we have ro begin 
upon) of fuch Aclions and Geftures as have' 
a kind of Natural Significancy,' or fbrhe 
few- Signs, which himfelf had before ta- 
ken up to exprefs his Thoughts as Well as 
he could, Proceed to Tepch him what I 
mean by r fbmewhat el(e$ and fo, by Steps, 
to mote and more r And this, fo far as 
wejl I can, in fuch. Methods, as that what 
he knows already may be a 'Step to what 
he is next to learn ; as in Mathematjrks, 
we make.ufe, not of Principles only, ? b'ut 
Fropofitions already dernonftrated, in the 
Dacnonftration of that which follows. Jv> 

It remains now, for the Perfecting the 
Account which at prelent you defire of me, 
only to tell you, what frogrefs we have al- 
ready made; which had nor your Defires 
commanded from me, I fhoujd have' re- 
fpjced a while longer, till t mighty have 
made it fomewhat Fuller. Vn ^ 

'He hath been already with me fomewhat 
more than Two Months, in which Time, 
though I cannot be thought to have Fi- 
nifjbed fuch a Work, yet the Succefs is not 
falittle as to Difcourage the Undertaking, 
but as much as I could hope for in fo rhort 
a Time, and more than I did expeft; So 
that J may £iy, the greateft Difficulty .of 
both Parts being arrnoft over, what Re- 
rriair^, is little more than the Work of 

G 2 Tim» 

( 40 > 

Time and Exercife. There is hardly any 
Word, which (with Deliberation) he can- 
not fpeak; but to do it Accurately, and 
with Expedition, we muft allow him the 
Practice of fome confiderable Time, to 
make it familiar to him. 

And, as to the Language, though it were 
very indifferent to him, who knew none, 
which to begin withal * yet fince it is out 
of Queftion, that EngYijh, to him, is like 
to be the mod Ufeful and Neceffary, it 
was not advifeable to begin with any other. 
For though he can pronounce the Latin 
with much more Eafe, (as being lefe per- 
plexed with a Multitude of concurring 
Confonants) yet this is a Consideration of 
much lefs Concernment than the other. " 

To this therefore having apply'd iliqa- 
felf, he hath already Learned a great ma- 
ny Words, and, I may fay, a confiderable 
Part of the Eqgtijht as to Words of moft 
frequent life : JJiit the whole Language 
being fo Copious, tho' otherwife Eafie, 
will require a longer Time to perfe&what 
tie hath begun. 

And this, Sir, is the full Hiftory of out 
Progrefs hitherto. If you (hall hereafter 
efteem our future Succefs" worthy your ta- 
king notice o£^rou may command that,pf 
what elfe is within the Power, of 

Oxford, S I R, Tour Honour's 

March 14. 

*66±. veryUumble Servant^ 


(4» ) 

The following Account was Writ 
by the late Ingenious Mr. Ol- 
denburg, Secretary of the 
Royal Society, 

THE, Perlbn, to whom the foregoing 
Letter doth refer, is Mr. Daniel 

Wbaley, ( Son of Mr Whaley, late 

el Northampton, and Mayor of that Town) 
He was (foon after the Date of this Let- 
ter) on the 21ft of May 1S62, prefent at 
a Meeting of the Royal Society, (of which 
the Regifter of that Day's Proceedings 
takes particular Notice ) and did in their 
f refence, to their great Satisfiaion, pro- 
nounce diftinftly enough fuch Words as 
d/ the Company were propofed to him j 
and though not altogether with the ufual 
Tone or Accent, yet-fo as eafily to be un- 
derftood: Whereupon alfo the faid Do- 
Oor was, by the fame Aflembly, encou- 
raged to purfue what he had fo ingenioufly 
and fuccefsfully begun. About the fcme 
Time alfo (hisMajefty having heard of 
it, and being willing to' fee him) he did 
the like feveral Times ^Whitehall, in the 
Frefence of His Majefty, his Hignnefs 


Prince Kiipert y and divers others of the 
Wohiliiy, tho' he had then employ'd but a 
fmall Time in acquiring this Ability. In 
the Space of One Year, which was the 
whole Time of his Stay with Dr. Wallis, 
he had xead over a great Paftof the Eng- 
lijb Bible, and had attain'd fo much Skill, 
as to exprefe hitnfelr' intelligibly in ordina- 
fy A&airsj to undetftand Letters written 
to him, and to write Anfwers to them, 
tho' not Elegantly, yet fo as to be under- 
stood j and in the Prefence of many Fo- 
reigners ( who out of Curiofity have come 
to fee him ) hath oft-times not only read 
Etiglijb wA Latin to them, bat pronoun- 
ced the moft difficult Words of their Lan- 
guages (even Poli/h it felfj which they 
could propofe to him. Since chat Time, 
tho 1 he hath not had Opportunity of ma- 
king much farther Improvement, for want 
of an Inftru&ar, yet he doth yet retain 
what he had attain'd to ; or wherein he 
may have forgot the Nicenefs reqoifite in 
the Pronunciation of fome Sounds, doth 
«afily recover it with a little Helpv ' 

Nor is this the only Perfcn on whom 
the faid Doftor hath (hewed the Efretl of 
his Skill, but he hath fince done the lifce 
for another, (a young Gentleman of a ve- 
ry-good Family and a fairEftatej who 
difl-ftom his Birth want his Hearing. On 
thisOceafion I thought it very fuitabl e to 
give. Notice of a fmall Latin Treatife, ef 
thi* lame Author,' firlt Publifhed in the 



Year 1653, intituled De Loque/a, [of 
Sfeech"} prefixed to his Grammar of the 
Englifh Tongue, written alfo in Latin. In 
which Treatife of Speech^ ( to which he 
refers in this Difcourfe, and on Confidence 
of which he durft undertake rhat difficult 
Task) he doth very diftin£Uy lay down 
the Manner of Forming alt Sounds t>F Let- 
ters ulaal in Speech, as well of the Kngs 
Rfh as of other Languages ; which is, I 
think, the Firft Book evet Publifhed of 
that Kind i ( for tho' lbrne Writers for- 
merly have here and there occafionally 1 
faid fomething of the Formation of fome 
particular Lettets, yet none, that I know 
of, had before him undertaken to give 2n 
Account of all. J Whether any fines him 
have with more Judgment and Accurate- 
aeis performed the lame, I wjll not tale 
upon me to determine. In his Grammar 
of the Eiftglifh Tongue^ (to which this of 
* Speech is prefixed) he hath lb briefly * ATranf. 
and clearly given an Account of this tan- l?'T[ thit f 
guage, as may be very Advantageous, not s^t[h % 
onty to Strangers, for. the eafie Attain- likemfe •/ 
ment tbarao£ but even to the Englijh them- * he &*»>• 
felves, for the clear Discovering (which»? M,r > ■?**' 
few take Notice of) the- true Genius of !J2u*2d 
their own Language. u/rfui Addi- 

tions, it pre- 
pmr^far tbe.Prefs ? the Whole mil be l&bJsfd over byfeveral Learn- 
ed Aten, both of Tom and the Vntwrfttiet* If any Gentlemen that 
hate made Oifervat'wu on the- Engiifh TUgu, mil be pleas 'd ta 
commmcatt them to the SaatyWfe', they (bail b» (artfully inferttd 
in their proper FUtt*. 


( 44 ) 

A Letter of Dr. John Wallis* 
(Geom. Prof. Oxon, and $. 
R.S.) to Mr. Thomas Be- 
verly, concerning bis Method 
for inftrutting Perfohs Deaf x 
and Dumb. 


IHave receiv'd your Letter of Sept. 22. 
wherein you telL me the Cafe of a Fa- 
mily, wherein you are concern'd; 
which is really very fad. Of Eight Chilr 
dren now living, Five are Deaf and Dumb. 
( And, 1 1 fuppofe, Dumb becaufe Deaf). 

You defire my Direftions, how beft to 
Ripply that Deleft : Having had fome 
Acquaintance (I underftand) with Mr. 
Alexander Fopbam y (who, I think, is yet 
living) whom ( being Born Deaf ) I taught 
(about Four or Five and Thirty Years ago^ 
to (peak diftinftly, (though I doubt he 
may, now have forgot much of it) and to 
underftand a Language, fo as to exprefc 
his Mind ( tolerably well ) by Writing* 
and to underftand what is written to him 
by others. As I had, before, taught Mr. 


C 45 ) 

X>amel Wkolcy : Who was Dsaf aifo j 
but is lately dead* 

Others, \wh 6 -were not DeaF, but had 
great Impediniems in their- Speech, (who 
Stutter'd extremely, or who have not been 
able to prtJnounce forrie •Letters, ) J have 
taught to Spe*k .very Diftin£tly, and to 
Pronounce. fhofe Letters #htfh before they 
could not : So as perfectly to Conquer 
that Difficulty; atleafV.'fojis.that it was 
very little /ir.jr.aU)' difcetnatMe. 

Some or her (Deaf Perfoosv I have nos 
awemptedteac'hJng them to Speak ; but 
only fo as (it) good>Meafuce) t6 uride> 
ijtand a Language, and to ^^prefg theif 
Mind (toleralbly weH) in VVritirig. Wh6 
have thereby attained a- muc"h greater 
Meafureof Knowledge in . maiiy Things, 
than was thbughr attainable to Peifonsin 
then Circumstances - and become capable 
(upon farthet Improvement,) of-fuch fur- 
ther Knowledge* as is attainable by Read- 

Fhe fofmrir Part of this Wofk (teach- 
ing K> Speaks or to /peak Flaitr) is ro be 
done,' by Dtrefiting tfaenrro Apply their 
IFongae,: Lips; andotberOrgansof Srieecb, 
to fuch'Pofturesand Motions, as are pro- 
per for the Formation of fuch and fuch 
Sounds frfefpe5¥ively) asafeufed in Speech. 
And, then, the Breath, emitted from the 
Lungs, will Forrri'thofe Sounds ^ wHether 
thePerfon Speaking do hear him felf, or 

H Of 


Of which relpecYive Formation, of all 
Sounds commonly ufed in Speech, I have 
given a fall Account (and, I think, I am 
the Fuft who have done it) in my Trea- 
tife De hoquela ^ prefixed to my Grammar 
of the Englijh longue •, firft Publifhed in 
the Year 11553. In Purfuance of which, 
I attempted the Teaching of Deaf Perfons 
to fpeak. 

And this is indeed the (horter Work 
of the Two. ( However looked up- 
on the more Stupendous. ) But this, 
without the other, would be of little 
tile. For, to pronounce Words only as a 
'Parrot, without knowing what they figni- 
"fi€,- Would - d<r us' but little Service. And 
it would by-Degrees ( without a Director 
to cone£t Miftakes ). coraeto be loft in 
Part. .For, like as one who Writes a fair 
Hand, if he become Blind, would foon 
forget the exaSt Draught ' of his Letters, 
for want of an Eye to direcT: his. Hand ; 
So he, who doth not Hear himfelf Speak, 
muft needs be apt to forget theNicenefs of 
Formation^ (without a Prompter) for 
want of an Ear to regulate his Tongue. 

The other Part of the Work ( to teach 
a Language) is what you now inquire a- 

In order to this ^ it is Neceflary in the 
Firft Place, That the Deaf Perfon be 
taught to Write. That there may be fome- 
what to exprels to the. Eye, what the 
Sound (of Letters) reprefents to the Ear. 


( 47 ) 

'Twill next be very Convenient, (be- 
caule Pen and Ink is not atovafcs.3t.rianfl) 
that he be taught, How to dejign each Let- 
ter, by ibme pertain Place, Pofitjon, or 
Motion of a Finger, Hand,, or s pther Part 
of the Body-, (which may ferve inftead 
of Writing.) As for Inftance, The Five' 
Vowels ae iouy by pointing to the Top 
of the Five Fingers: ., And the other Let- 
ters be d % 8tc. by fuch other Place or Po-^ 
fture of a Finger, or otherwise, as fhall be, 
agreed upon. 

.After, this-, a Language, fc, taught 
this Dp^Perfonj by like.Methbds as Chil- 
dren are at firft ; taught.a Language "5, (tho 5 
the Thing perhaps be not heeded.) Only 
with this Difference : • Children learn 
Sounds by the Ear ; fyut the Deaf Peribn 
is to learn Marjis (of thofe Sounds) ' by, 
the Eyp. But x both the. one and the other, 
do equally fignifie the fame Things or No- 
tions \ and are equally (figtfifaantia ad 
placitum) of meer Atbitfafy Significati- 

'Tis then mbft natural (as Children 
learn the Names of Things) to furnifh 
him (by Degrees) with a Ndmenclator -, 
containing a competent Number of Names 
ofThingscommon and obvious to the Eye ; 
(that you may (hew the Thing anfwering 
to fuch a Name.) And thele tfigefted un- 
der convenient T.itles ■, and placed (under 
them) in fuch convenient Order, (infe- 
veral Columncs, or other orderly Situati- 
H 2 on 

oti in the Paper) as (bytlieif Pofiriqn ) 
beft ib expreis,' to the Eye, their Reiatioa 
or Refpeft to one arjbtbef . As j Contraries 
or Correlatives, one over a&irift.the other 5, 
Subordinate's of Appftrtemncts, under their 
Principals. Which mayierve as a kind of 
Local Memory. 

"Thus, (in one Piper ) aqder the Title 
Mankind, may he pljice^ { not Gonfofei- 
ly, but in Decent Order) n M*n^ Woman, 
Child \ (boy; girl) -And, if you pleafe, 
the Names of fome kno^vn PerJbnsl, (o£ 
r$e Family, or others, ) v^trr Spaces left 
to be fupplted with other likelNames oif 
Words, as after "there may be Occafi- 

^hen ( in another Paper) under the Ti- 
tie BjoM' may $e written (in like conve- 
nient Order ) Ifcad, (hair., skin, ear, ) 
facf, forehead, eye, (eye- ltd, eyebrow,) 
cheek, nofe, (nofiril 3 ) mouth, (lip, chin.) 
Neck, (throat.) Back, Br e a ft, Side\ 
(right-fide, left-fide. ) Belly, Shoulder, 
Arm t (dbovo, thrift, band, ( back, pa/ 1 ?*) 
fwger, (thmb, knucklkyitail.) Thigh, 
knee, leg, : (fhin, calf, ^ckle,) fat, (htoed 
fole,) toe. With like Spaces, as before, 
for more to be added, as there is Occa& 

And when he hath learned the Import 
of Words in each Paper, let hitn write 
them ( in like manner) in diftinft Leaves 
or Pages of a Bpok ( prepared for that 


(49 ) 

purpofe) to confirm his Memory, and to 
have Recpurfe to it upon Occafioq. 

In a Third Paper, you may give him 
the Inward Parts. As, Scul, ( brain, ) 
throat, ( windpipe, gullet,), fiomacb, 
(&* ts ->) hearty lungs, liver, fplene, kidney, 
bladder, (urine,) vein, ( blood,) bone, 
(marrow,) fle(h, fat, &c. 

In another Paper, under the' Title Beafl, 
may be placed ; Horfe, (Jlonehorfe, geld- 
ing,) mare, (colt.) Bull, (ox,) cow, 
calf. Sheep, ram, (wether,) ew, (lamb.) 
Hog, boar, fow, pig. Dog, ( majiiff t 
hound, grey-hound, fpanielj biuh, (vebelp, 
puppy. ) Hare , rabbet. Cat , moufc , 
rat, 8tc. 

Under the Title Bird, or JFaft;/, put 
Cock, (capon,) ken, chick. Goofe, (gan- 
der,) gofling.\ Duck, (drake,) Sipan,Crow, 
Kite, Lark, <&c. 

Under the Title Fijh, put Pike, Eel* 
Plaice, §filmw >t . Lobftar, Crab,uifler, 
Crawfijh, &c. 

You may tijen put Plants or Vegetables 
under Jeveral fie&ti, or 4 Subflivj/ipns of 
the lame Head, As, Tree, ( roqt, body, 
bark, bough, leaf, fruit-,) Oak, ' efh, ap- 
ple-tree, pear-tree^ ifine, &c. fruit, ap- 
ple, pear, plumb,, cherry, grape, nut, o- 
tinge, lemon. Plumper % roft\ tulip, gilo- 
fer\ ,. Herb,{ypeed,) grafs, , ; Gv,7 & nbeat, 
barly, rye, pea., bean, 

An$ihe\ife.<$ili/t/i/i{wates. ,As, Hea- 
ven ; fun, moon, ftar. Elements ■, earth, 


water, air , fire. And (under the Title 
Earth ; ) f/<y, fand, gravel, flone. Me- 
tal \. gold) ft her, brafs, (copper,) iron, 
(fleet J lead, tin, {pewter, ) gldfs. Un- 
der the Title Water ;' put Sea, pond, ri- 
ver, ftream. Under that of Air j put 
Light, dark, mift, fog. Cloud -, wind, 
rain, hail, Jnow ; thunder , lightning, 
rainbow. Under that of Tire 5 ; Coal , 
flame, fmodk, foot, ajhes, 

Under the Title Clothes-, put Woollen, 
( cloth, fluff, ) Lintten ; Holland, lawn 
lockarum) Silk, (Satin^Velvet.) Hat, 
cap, band, doublet, breeches, coat, cloak, 
flocking, fhooe , boot, fhirt, petticoat, 
gown, &c. 

Under the Title' Houfe 5 put Wall, 
roof, door, window, (ciifement,) room. 

Under Room ; put Shop, hall, parlour, 
dining-room, chamber, , (Jiudy, dofct,) 
kitchin, cellar, ftable, &c. 

And, under each of thefe, (as diftinft 
Heads,) the Fur/iiture or VtenfUs belong- 
ing thereunto ; (with Diyifions and Sub- 
divifions, as there is Occafion ; ) which I 
forbear to mention, that I be not too pro- 

And, in like manner, from time to 
time, may he added more Collections tit 
Qafles of Names or Words, conveniently 
digefted under diftincT: Heads, and fuit* 
ble Diftributions •, to be written in di- 
ftinS Leaves or Pages of his Book ; infuch 


( 5i ) 

Order as may feem convenient : Which I 
leave to the Prudence of the Teacher. 

When he is furnifhed with a competent 
Number of Names, (though not fo many 
as I have mentioned : ) it will be feafona- 
ble to teach him (under the Titles Singu- 
lar, Plural,) the Formation of Plurals 
from Singulars ; by adding s or es. As, 
Hand, bands ; Face, faces ; Fifh, fijhes ; 
Vfc with fome few Irregulars ■> As, Man, 
Men -, Woman, women ; Foot, feet ; . Tooth, 
teeth; Moufe, mice; Lovofe, lice.; Ox, 
Oxen, &c. 

Which (except the Irregulars) will 
ferve for PoJJe/fwes ( to be after taught 
him, ) which are formed from their Pri- 
mitives, by like Addition of s or es. Ex- 
cept fome few Irregulars ; As My, mine -, 
Thy, thine ; Our, ours ; Tour, yours ; His, 
her, hers ; Their, theirs, 8cc. 

And in all 'thofe, and other like Cafes, 
it Will be proper flrft to lhew him the 
Particulars, and then the General Ti- 

Then teach him ( in another Page, or 
Paper ) the Particles ; A, an ; The, this, 
that ; Thefe, thofe. 

And the Pronouns •, I, me, my, mine ; 
Thou, thee, thy, thine ; We, us, our, ours -, 
Te, you, your, yours; He, him, hit ; She, 
her, hers-, It, its-, They, them, their, 
theirs ; Who, whom, who's. 

Then, under the Titles AdjeSive, Sub- 
Jiantive i teach him to connea thefe. As, 


C 5* ) 

My hand, Tour head, His foot, Hii fat, 
Her arm, arms, Our hats, Their fhoes, 
John's coat, William's band, &c 

And, in order to furniih him with more 
AdjeQives; Under the Title Colours, you 
may place Black, white, gray, green, btue, 
yellow, red, &c. And, having fhewed the 
Particulars , let him know,Theie ate cal- 
led Colours. 

The like for Tap, and Smell -, As, 
Sweet, bitter, foure, ftink. 

And for Hearing -, Sound, noije, word. 

Then, for Touch or Feeling .- Hot, 
(ttfarm,) Cold, (tool,) Wet, (mbfftj 
Dry-, Hard, f oft -, Tough, brink ; Hea- 
vy, light, fiCc. 

From whence you may furnifh him 
with more Examples of Adje&rves with 
Sxbftafttives -, As, White breatf y Brown 
bread, Green graft, Seftcheeje, Hard 
ctiteje, Black hat, my Black bat, &e. 

And then, inverting the ■ Order, Stitbftan- 
ftant'rde and AdjetffVt* (with the VerbCd- 
pulative between:) As; Silver is white ; 
Gold is yellow ; Lead is heavy ; Wohd is 
light; Snow is white-, Itrk is Mack; Flejh 
is Jo ft -, Bone is hard; lamfick; lam 
not well, 8cc. V Vhich will begin aygive 
hinrvfame Notion of Syntax. 

In -like manner, when Subflvnttve and 
Subfamive are fo connected. A«v Ookl is 
a Metal; A Rofe is a Flower-, We Me 
Men ; They are Womn -, Harjes are 
Beafts ; Geeje ate Fowl$\ harks- are 
Birds, 8tc. Then 

C5* ) 

Then, as thofe'before relate to Quality, 
you may give -him fome other Words rela- 
ting to Quantity. As, Long, fhort •, Bread,' 
narrow-, Thick, thirty High; ft all J low, 
Deep, fhallow •, Great', ( big, ) fmall, ( li ti- 
tle ; ) Much, little ; -Many, few \ Full, 
empty; Whole, part, (piece-,) All, fome, 
none ; Strong, weak ; £>uick,flow ; Equal, 
unequal; Bigger, lefs. 

Then, Words of Figure ; As, Streigbr, 
crooked -, Plain, bowed; Concave, (hollow) 
convex ; Round, fquare, three-fquare ; 
Sphere, (globe, ball, boul) Cube, (die,) 
Upright, floping -, Leaning forward, lean* 
ing backward -, Like, unlike. 

Of Gefture ; As, Stand, lye, fit, kneel^ 

Of Motion ; As, Move, (ftir,) reft ; 
Walk, (go, come-, ) Run ; Leap ; Ride ; 
Fall, rife; Swim, fink, (drown-,) Slide; 
Creep, (crawl;) Fly; Full, (draw,) thru ft, 
throw; Bring, fetch, carry. 

Then, Words relating to Time},' Place, 
Number, Weight, Meafure, Money, He* 
are (in convenient time) to be f hewed 
him diftinStly. For which the Teacher, 
according to his Difcretion, may-take a 
convenient Seafon. 

As likewife, the Time of the Day-, The 
Days of the Week; The Days of the Month ; 
The Months of the Tear ; and other things 
relating to the Almanack. \ WhiGh'he will 
quickly be capable to underftand, if orice 
Methodically (hewed him. 

I As 


As likewife, the Barnes ad Situatiws, 
of Places, and Countries, which are con- 
veniens for him to know. Which may 
be orderly written in his Bock ; and Ihew- 
ed him in Maps of London, England, Eu- 
rope, the World, 8ic. 

But thefe may he done at leifure ; As 
likewife the Practice c<\ Arithmetick, and 
othc • like pieces oi Learning. 

In the mean Time, ( aft: r the Concord 
of Sub ft active and Ad'jettwe,) he is to be 
{hewed (by conveniens Examples) that 
of the Ncminative an- Verb. As for In- 
ftance, I .go, Ton fee, He fit s^ They jiand, 
the Fire burns, the Sun Jb'wes, the Wind 
blows, the Rain falls, the Water runs y 
and the like : with die Titles in the Top, 
Nominative , Verb. 

After this ( under the Titles, Nomina'! 
tive^ Verb, Accufative,f give him Exam- 
ples o£\etbsTran/itives , As, Ifeeyoti, 
Ton fee Me, The Fire bums the Wood, The 
Boy makes a Fire, The, Cook roafts the 
Meat^tb Butler lays the Cloth, We eat 

Or ev en with a Double Accufative -, as 
Tou te«cb me (Writing, of) to write $ 
John eacheth me to Dan$e\ Thomas tells, 
trie a T&te y 8fc« 

After this 5 you may teach him\thtf 
flexion or Conjugation of *a Verb ; or wbat 
is equivalent thereunto. For, in our Eng- 
lish Tongue, each Verb hath but TwoTen- 
fes, (the Pre/ent and the Prefer) and 


( 5$ ) 

Two Participles, the Mive atod the J»^ 
/w.,) All the reft is performed by Au- 
xiliaries. Which ( Auxiliaries ) have no 
more Tenies, than the other Verbs. 

Thofe Auxiliaries are, Do, did-, Will, 
would-, Shall, Jhould • Ma}, might; Can, 
could; Muft, ought to j Have, had*, Am, 
(he,) Was. Awl if, by Examples, y ou> 
can infinuate the fignification of thefe Few 
Words: you have taught him the whole 
Flexion of the Verb. 

And here It will be convenient, (once 
for all,) towrke him out a full Para- 
digm of fome one Verb, ( fuppofe, to See,) 
-through all thofe Auxiliaries. 

The Verb it felf, hath but thefe Four 
Words to be learned j See, Jaw, feeing, 
feen. Save that, after Ihou in the Second 
Ferlbn lingular (in both Tenies) we add 
efti and in the Third Perfon Angular (in 
the Prefent Tenfe ) etb or es : Or, in- 
ftead thereof, ft, tb, s. And fo in all 

-Then, to the Auxiliaries, Do did, Will 
would, Shall Jhould, May might, Can could, 
tAiift, ought io y we adjoin the Indefinite 
See. And, after Have had, Am (be) wot, 
the Paffive Participle Seen. And fo for 
all other Verbs. 

Bat the Auxiliary Am or , Be,, isfome- 
what Irregular • in a double Form : , 

Am, art^ a « Plural, Are. Was^ waft, 
voas\ Plural, Were. 

I 2 Ba t 

CZ5« ) 

Be,beeft; be •, Floral, Be* Were, wert, 
were"-, tftiral, Were. 

Be ( am,) zoos, being, been. 

Which -t attended witrr the other Aux- 
iliaries ) make up the whole Pa (five Voice. 

All Verbs ( without Exception ) in the 
ASivs- Participle, are formed by adding 
ing •, As, See, feeixg;' Teach, Teaching,^. 

Ihe PreterTenfe, and the Paffive Par- 
ticiple, are formed (regularly) by adding 
ed. Bat are oft fubjeQ:.- xa\£ontraftions, 
and other Irregularities,.' (ibmetime,, the 
lame in both \~ fometime, different.) And 
therefore it is convenient, here, to give a 
Table of Verbs (efpecially the moft ufu- 
al) for thole Three Cafes. . (Which 
may, at once, teach their Signification, 
and Formation, ) As, Boil, boiled, boiled-. 
Roft, rqfted, rofted; Bake, baked, baked, 
1 &c. Teaebi, taught, taught; Bring, brought, 
-brougtft -, ■ Buy, bought, bought, &c. See, 
Jaw, feew; Give, gave^ given •, . Take, took, 
taken ; Porjake, forfook, forfaken ; . Writ, 
wrote, ivritten, &c. With many more, fit 
-to be learned. 

The Verbs being thus difpatched ; he is 
then to learn the Prepofitions. Wherein 
lies .the whole Regimen of the Noun. 
(For Diverlity of Cafes we have none.) 
The force of which is to. be infinuated by 
convenient Examples, fuited to their diffe- 
rent Significations. As, for inftance, . 

Of, A piece of bread; A pint otWine-, 
The cover of a pot; The colour of gold; 


C 57 ) 

A fixjg., 0f g$d\ A i cup of Silver 5 the 
<Mfflot of London; TheJongefipfal^ 8cc. 

Am in. like manner for, Off; on, upon -, 
To, unto } tili) until; frohti, At -, In 
( within, ) out ( without -, ) Into, oitt of; 
About x over, under ; Above, below ; Be- 
tween, among ; Before, behind, after ; for, 
By, With, through ; t agaijifi\ Concerning • 
Andj by this Time, he will be pretty well 
inabled to understand a Single Sentence, 

In the laft^Place,; he is ( in' like man- 
lier) to be taught Cdnju^icns. (Which 
ierye to connect,, not Words only, but, Sen- 
tences. ) A$4 And, aifo, Ukewife 5 Either, 
or, whether; Neither, net •; If, .ben ^ 
W>y» ( V} ti* r efo re i) becaufe^ therefore ; 
B*/, maugb, yet, &c. And thefe illuftra- 
ted'% convenient KxampieSy in each Cafe, 

Becaufe I am cold; ihepeforeA go to/ 
the Fire ; that I may be warm ; For it. is 
cold Weather., 

If it were fair, then u would>begood 
walking : Ztef { however ) though it rain, 
^/rmuftgo; fcr^Ipromifedi With 
other like Iriftances. 

And, by this time,, his Book, (if well 
fumiihed with pjenty of Words i and 
xhofe well digefted, und^er feveral Heads^ 
tod in good Uideu; and well recrjaited, 
from time to time, asriew Words occur ;) 
will ferve him In the Nature of a bifiior- 
nary and Grammar. 


( 58 ) 

And, In Cafe the Deaf Perfon be other- 
wife of a good Natural Capacity -, and 
the Teacher of a good Sagacity -, By this 
Method (proceeding gradually, ftep by 
-* e P») you may (with Diligence and due 
Application, of Teacher and Learner,) in 
a Year's Thiae, or thereabouts, perceive a 
greater Progrefs than you would expect : 
and a good Foundation laid for further In* 
ftru&ion, in Matters of Religion, and other 
Knowledge which may be taught by Books. 

It will be convenient, all along, to have 
Pen, Ink and Paper ready at Hand, to write 
down in Words, what you fignifie to him 
by Signs ; and caufe Him to write, ( or 
fhewhim how to write) what He figni* 
fies by Signs. Which way (of fignify^ 
ing their Mind by Signs) Eteaf perfons 
are often very good at. And we muft en- 
deavour to learn their Language, £if I 
may ib call it) in orA^r-to teach therii 
ours : By (hewing what Words anfwer 
to their Signs; 4 

'Twill be convenient alio, as you go a- 
long, (after lbme convenient progreft 
made ) to exprefs ( in as plain Language 
as may be) the import of lbme of the 
Tables. As, forinftance, 

The Head is the Higheft part of tie 
Body-, the Feet, the Loweft part; The 
"Fact is the Fore-part of the Head; The 
forehead is Over the Eyes -, TbeCbeeks are 
Under the Eyes $ The Nefe is Between the 

Cheeks j 

( 59) 

Cheeks \ The Mouth is Under the Nofe, 
and Above the Chin, &c. 

And fuch plain Difcourfe, put into 
Writing, and particularly explain'd ; will 
teach him by Degrees to u.idetftand Plain 
Sentences. And like Advantage?, a Saga- 
cious Teacher, may rake as Occafion of- 
fers it felf from time to time. 

Thus I have, in a long Letter, given 
you a Short Account of my Methods, 
( ufed, in fuch Cafes, with good Succefs ) 
which to do at Large, would require a 

1 have taken the pains to draw up this 
Method, ( which is what I have purfued 
my felf in the like Cafe,) as appprehend- 
ing it may be of ufe to fbme others when I 
am dead. And I am not defirous : it (hould 
die with me* 

And 1 ha gagflflfeft as plainly as 1 could 
that it m be the better underftood. 

I have given onlv lome fhort Specimens 
of fuch Tables as 1 had made for my own 
Ufe, and trre.Ufe of thofe whom I was to 
inftruft ■ but to give them at large, would 
be more than the Work of a Letter ; and 
they are to be varied, as the Circumftan- 
ces of the Perfons, and the Places may re- 

Suire, or the Prudence of a "eacher (hall 
nd expedient. 

It is adjufted to the Englijh Tongue,- "be- 
cause luch were the Eerfons I had to" deal 


C 60 ) 

Tathofe of another Language, it jriuffi 
be fo altered as fuch Language requires* 
And perhaps will not be fp eafily done 
for another Language • as 'fot the Eng- 
UJh. The Flexion of Notms, the Conjuga- 
tion of Verbs, the Difference of Genders, 
the Variety of Syntax, &c. doth in other 
Languages give a great deal of Trouble, 
tohichthe SmpHcity of our Language 
doth free us from. But this is not my 
prefent Bufinefs. 


Tours to ScrvtT° u 3 

^* . 1 im tm m ^^»^»w^mwr* " ^ ' 'J >n s